ANALISIS PERAN SEKTOR INFORMAL SEBAGAI INKUBATOR BISNIS USAHA KECIL DI KABUPATEN TULUNGAGUNG

  • Sawal Sartono Universitas Tulungagung
  • Desi Rahmawati Universitas Tulungagung
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Keywords: Pelaku usaha kecil, Sektor informal, Inkubator bisnis.

Abstract

Abstrak

Sektor informal memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam proses pembangunan nasional. Namun, menurut perhitungan IMF, negara berkembang seperti Indonesia akan kehilangan potensi pajak yang cukup besar dari ekonomi bawah tanah. Nilai pajak yang hilang mencapai 39% dari total PDB. Maka, keberadaan ekonomi bawah tanah, di satu sisi, membantu perekonomian untuk berkembang, tetapi tidak memiliki kontribusi terhadap perpajakan. Kabupaten Tulungagung seperti yang tercantum dalam data statistik (Tulungagung dalam angka, BPS Kab. Tulungagung 2014) memiliki jumlah pengusaha dalam skala mikro (IKKR) sebesar 6269 pengusaha, yang tersebar di 17 (tujuh belas) kecamatan. Sektor informal dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, dalam berbagai perkembangan literatur telah menjadi topic pembahasan bahwa ekonomi informal merupakan inkubator untuk penciptaan perusahaan. Para wirausahawan berusaha dengan mencoba menjual (berdagang) hasil usahanya tanpa mendaftarkan perusahaannya untuk mengetahui peluang kelangsungan usahanya sebelum memutuskan untuk medaftarkan dan melegalkan. Pandangan ini seperti ini telah  banyak mempengaruhi pada kebijakan publik terutama dinegara-negara Eropa.

Fenomena pelaku usaha sebelum melegalkan usahanya berusaha di sector informal diberbagai negara seperti disebutkan dalam hasil penelitian diatas ternyata menunjukkan pentingnya sektor informal sebagai inkubator bisnis. Mengingat arti sektor informal sebagaimana disinggung diatas peneliti menduga bahwa para pelaku wirausaha sebelum mereka melegalkan dan mendaftarkan usahanya secara resmi, mereka terlebih dahulu berusaha disektor informal.Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif dengan menggunakan analisa regresi logit untuk mengetahui hasil penggunaan model. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa maypritas pelaku usaha pada tahap awal (start up) cenderung memulai usahanya disektor informal dengan alasan terbesar adalah sector informal memberikan mereka kesempatan sebelum kapasitas usaha untuk memenuhi didaftarkan (94,4%) dan alasan kedua adalah mereka ingin mengetahui visibilitas usaha yang mereka yang mereka rintis (94,3%), sedangkan penggunaan model tambahan dengan pengaruh social demografi, kapasitas usaha dan lokasi tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan dalam menentukan keputusan berusaha disektor informal. Dari hasil penelitian diketahui nilai Nilai hitung chi-square 718,553 < nilai table 918,937, ini menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat pengaruh signifikan variable independen keputusan berusaha disektor informal pada saat memulai usaha. Dari nilai Pseudo R2 dalam tiap model yang kecil dapat dilihat pengaruh masing-masing variabel terhadap keputusan memulai usaha disektor informal lebih banyak dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain.

 

Abstract

 

The informal sector has a very important role in the national development process. However, according to IMF calculations, developing countries such as Indonesia will lose considerable potential for taxes from the underground economy. The value of lost taxes reaches 39% of total GDP. Thus, the existence of an underground economy, on the one hand, helps the economy to develop, but does not have a contribution to taxation. Kabupaten Tulungagung as stated in the statistical data (Tulungagung dalam angka, BPS Kabupaten Tulungagung 2014) has a number of micro-scale entrepreneurs (IKKR) of 6269 entrepreneurs, spread over 17 (seventeen) sub-districts. The informal sector in recent years, in various developments in the literature has become a discussion topic that the informal economy is an incubator for the creation of companies. Entrepreneurs try by trying to sell (trade) the results of their business without registering their companies to find out about the chances of their survival before deciding to register and legalize it. This view like this has a lot of influence on public policy, especially in European countries. The phenomenon of business actors before legalizing their business efforts in the informal sector in various countries as mentioned in the results of the research above shows the importance of the informal sector as a business incubator. Given the meaning of the informal sector as mentioned above, researchers suspect that before entrepreneurs legalize and register their business formally, they first try the informal sector. The research method used is quantitative by using logit regression analysis to determine the results of the use of the model. Based on the results of the study, it is known that the majority of business actors in the start up tend to start their business in the informal sector with the biggest reason being the informal sector gives them the opportunity before the business capacity to meet is registered (94.4%) and the second reason is they want to know business visibility the ones they pioneered (94.3%), while the use of additional models with the influence of social demography, business capacity and location did not significantly influence the decision making in the informal sector. From the results of the study it is known that the chi-square value of 718,553 <table value 918,937, this indicates that there is no significant effect of independent variables on the business decision in the informal sector when starting a business. From the Pseudo R2 values in each small model it can be seen that the influence of each variable on the decision to start a business in the informal sector is more influenced by other factors.

References

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Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014.” Is the informal economy an incubator for new enterprise creation? A gender perspective”. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol. 20 No. 1, 2014 pp. 4-19.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014. “Entrepreneurship in the informal economy” Entrepreneurship And Innovation Vol 15, No 4, 2014, pp 1–00 doi: 10.5367/ijei.2014.0162

Gurtoo, A. and Williams, C.C. (2009), “Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 55-62.

Sugiyono, 2005, Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Cetakan Kedelapan, Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.

Williams,C.C.(2005),“The undeclared sector, self-employment and public policy”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 244-257.

Williams,C.C.(2009),“Informal entrepreneurs and their motives: a gender perspective”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 219-225.

Williams, C.C. (2010), “Spatial variations in the hidden enterprise culture: some lessons from England”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 403-423.

Williams, C.C. and Gurtoo, A. (2011a), “ Women entrepreneurs in the Indian informal sector: marginalisation dynamics or institutional rational choice?”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 6-22.

Undang-Undang Nomor 28 tahun 2008 Tentang Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Dan Menengah

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan

http://www.diogenes-incubator.com/ diakses tanggal 23 Februari 2016

https://www.entrepreneur.com/diakses tanggal 25 Februari 2016

https://www.bps.go.id/index.php/istilah/index?Istilah[katacarian] diakses tanggal 18 April 2016

http://www.kajianpustaka.com/2013/01/usaha-mikro-kecil-dan-menengah.html18 April 2016

Brautigam, Deborah. 1995. “Reducing Poverty: Lesson from Taiwan”. Uner Kirdar dan Leonard Silk (eds.), People: From Impoverishment to empowerment. New York: New York University Press.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014.” Is the informal economy an incubator for new enterprise creation? A gender perspective”. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol. 20 No. 1, 2014 pp. 4-19.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014. “Entrepreneurship in the informal economy” Entrepreneurship And Innovation Vol 15, No 4, 2014, pp 1–00 doi: 10.5367/ijei.2014.0162

Gurtoo, A. and Williams, C.C. (2009), “Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 55-62.

Sugiyono, 2005, Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Cetakan Kedelapan, Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.

Williams,C.C.(2005),“The undeclared sector, self-employment and public policy”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 244-257.

Williams,C.C.(2009),“Informal entrepreneurs and their motives: a gender perspective”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 219-225.

Williams, C.C. (2010), “Spatial variations in the hidden enterprise culture: some lessons from England”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 403-423.

Williams, C.C. and Gurtoo, A. (2011a), “ Women entrepreneurs in the Indian informal sector: marginalisation dynamics or institutional rational choice?”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 6-22.

Undang-Undang Nomor 28 tahun 2008 Tentang Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Dan Menengah

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan

http://www.diogenes-incubator.com/ diakses tanggal 23 Februari 2016

https://www.entrepreneur.com/diakses tanggal 25 Februari 2016

https://www.bps.go.id/index.php/istilah/index?Istilah[katacarian] diakses tanggal 18 April 2016

http://www.kajianpustaka.com/2013/01/usaha-mikro-kecil-dan-menengah.html18 April 2016

Brautigam, Deborah. 1995. “Reducing Poverty: Lesson from Taiwan”. Uner Kirdar dan Leonard Silk (eds.), People: From Impoverishment to empowerment. New York: New York University Press.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014.” Is the informal economy an incubator for new enterprise creation? A gender perspective”. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol. 20 No. 1, 2014 pp. 4-19.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014. “Entrepreneurship in the informal economy” Entrepreneurship And Innovation Vol 15, No 4, 2014, pp 1–00 doi: 10.5367/ijei.2014.0162

Gurtoo, A. and Williams, C.C. (2009), “Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 55-62.

Sugiyono, 2005, Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Cetakan Kedelapan, Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.

Williams,C.C.(2005),“The undeclared sector, self-employment and public policy”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 244-257.

Williams,C.C.(2009),“Informal entrepreneurs and their motives: a gender perspective”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 219-225.

Williams, C.C. (2010), “Spatial variations in the hidden enterprise culture: some lessons from England”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 403-423.

Williams, C.C. and Gurtoo, A. (2011a), “ Women entrepreneurs in the Indian informal sector: marginalisation dynamics or institutional rational choice?”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 6-22.

Undang-Undang Nomor 28 tahun 2008 Tentang Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Dan Menengah

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan

http://www.diogenes-incubator.com/ diakses tanggal 23 Februari 2016

https://www.entrepreneur.com/diakses tanggal 25 Februari 2016

https://www.bps.go.id/index.php/istilah/index?Istilah[katacarian] diakses tanggal 18 April 2016

http://www.kajianpustaka.com/2013/01/usaha-mikro-kecil-dan-menengah.html18 April 2016

Brautigam, Deborah. 1995. “Reducing Poverty: Lesson from Taiwan”. Uner Kirdar dan Leonard Silk (eds.), People: From Impoverishment to empowerment. New York: New York University Press.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014.” Is the informal economy an incubator for new enterprise creation? A gender perspective”. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research Vol. 20 No. 1, 2014 pp. 4-19.

Colin Williams and Alvaro Martinez, 2014. “Entrepreneurship in the informal economy” Entrepreneurship And Innovation Vol 15, No 4, 2014, pp 1–00 doi: 10.5367/ijei.2014.0162

Gurtoo, A. and Williams, C.C. (2009), “Entrepreneurship and the informal sector: some lessons from India”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 55-62.

Sugiyono, 2005, Metode Penelitian Bisnis, Cetakan Kedelapan, Bandung: CV. Alfabeta.

Williams,C.C.(2005),“The undeclared sector, self-employment and public policy”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 244-257.

Williams,C.C.(2009),“Informal entrepreneurs and their motives: a gender perspective”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1 No. 3, pp. 219-225.

Williams, C.C. (2010), “Spatial variations in the hidden enterprise culture: some lessons from England”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 22 No. 5, pp. 403-423.

Williams, C.C. and Gurtoo, A. (2011a), “ Women entrepreneurs in the Indian informal sector: marginalisation dynamics or institutional rational choice?”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 6-22.

Undang-Undang Nomor 28 tahun 2008 Tentang Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Dan Menengah

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan

http://www.diogenes-incubator.com/ diakses tanggal 23 Februari 2016

https://www.entrepreneur.com/diakses tanggal 25 Februari 2016

https://www.bps.go.id/index.php/istilah/index?Istilah[katacarian] diakses tanggal 18 April 2016

http://www.kajianpustaka.com/2013/01/usaha-mikro-kecil-dan-menengah.html18 April 2016

How to Cite
Sartono, S., & Rahmawati, D. (1). ANALISIS PERAN SEKTOR INFORMAL SEBAGAI INKUBATOR BISNIS USAHA KECIL DI KABUPATEN TULUNGAGUNG. Jurnal BENEFIT, 5(1), 31-46. Retrieved from https://journal.unita.ac.id/index.php/benefit/article/view/157
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